There is a critical need for the systematic identification and testing of new gene modulated states that participate in the enhancement of cellular stress resistance. In our laboratory we use the new era of genomic tools that make it possible to identify point mutations, insertions, deletions and/or translocations that have occurred in offspring strains following defined selection processes.  In the near future, this comparative approach will provide valuable insights for identifying gene combinations and biochemical pathways that play a role in microbial metabolism and this information is applied to further improve production using strategic strain modifications.